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如何理解学生的深度学习——“全景式数学”教学团队基于学生深度学习的实践与思考
发布时间: 2019-08-12 来源:yb体育_官网

shenduxuexishizuijinjinianjiaoyujiedeyigereci。qishi,shenduxuexiyuanshijiqixuexizhongdeyigegainian,yuanyurengongshenjingwangluodeyanjiu,tichudedongjizaiyujianli、monirennaojinxingfenxixuexideshenjingwangluo,mofangrennaodejizhilaijieshishuju。

yb体育houlai,shenduxuexibeiyizhidaolejiaoyujiaoxuelingyu,xunsufengmi。danshi,jiaoyujiaoxuezhongren(xuesheng)deshenduxuexineihandaodishishenme?daomuqianweizhi,haimeiyoumingque、tongyidejieding,wangshangdebaikecitiaoyejinjinnengjiansuodaojiqixuexizhongshenduxuexidegainian,meiyouybtiyurenshenduxuexidedingyi。xiamian,woyiketangshijianweili,tantan“quanjingshishuxue”jiaoxuetuanduiduiren(xuesheng)shenduxuexidelijieherenshi。

womenrenwei,rendeshenduxuexiyinggaijubeiyixiajibentezheng。

一、深度学习应该是因循学习者身心发展和科学认知规律的学习

yb体育rendeshenduxuexihuodongyingshijiyujiaoyujiaoxueguilv、xinlixue、naokexuedengkexueshejibingzhankaidexuexihuodong。wulunshiqixuexineirong、nanyichengdu、xuexiqiangdu、xuexifangshi,haishixuexidehuanjing、shijian、jiezoudengyinsu,doubixuyuxuexizhedenianlingtezheng、shenxinfazhanshuipingjirenzhitedianxiangfuhe,zheishishenduxuexideqianti。chaoguoren(xuesheng)renzhinenglidexuexishihennanshixianshendurenzhide,shenzhihuichuxiancuowuderenzhi。

yb体育biru,youershiyijuganjuelairenshishiwu、xingchenggainiande。yaoranghaizijianliherenshi“hongse”zheigegainian,ruguowomennayiduohongsedehuabuduangaosuhaizi: zheishi“hongse”。zheishihou,haizineixinganjuedezhuyilihenkenengjujiaozaihuadexingtaishang,jiaoxuedegainianyuhaizineixindeganjuekenengbingbupipei!yejiushishuo,haizishoucilijiedehongsegainianyuwomenyaojiaojitadehongsegainiangenbenbushiyihuishi。zhengquedezuofashi,womenjihaizitongshichengxiancaizhiwanquanyiyangzhiyouyansechayidejikuaiseban(biruhongse、lansehebaise),zaiduibizhongbuduanzhongfugaosuhaizi: zheishihongse,zheishilanse,zheishibaise。zheiyangzuidahuapaichuyansezhiwaiqitayinsudeganrao,keyijizhongganjue“yanse”,gengrongyijianliqiybtiyuhongsedegainian。shishishang,bujinshiyouer,xiaoxueshengduixuduogainiandexuexiyeshiyinweiqueshaoduirenzhiguilv、renzhikexuedezhuyiheyingyong,zhishitamenxinzhongdegainianyuwomenlijiede、xiwangxueshenglingwudegainiancunzaichayi。erduigainianlijieherenshidebutong,wangwangshizaocheng“hubulijie”dezhongyaoyuanyin。

二、深度学习应该是学习者深入理解学习对象(问题情境)本身的学习

yb体育yaoshixianxuexizhedeshenduxuexi,xuexizheyaoduiyanjiuduixiang(wentiqingjing)benshenjinxingquanmian、shenru、wanzhengdelijie。tongshi,haiyaolijieyuqixiangguandebeijing、huanjingdengyinsu。renzhiyoushendulijielewentibenshen,caiyoushendujiejuezheigewentidekeneng。biru,wozaiyicishenduxuexiyantaohuishangzhijiaode《getiepi》。zhengjiekezhiweiraoyigewentiqingjingzhankai: “yizhangzhangfangxingtiepi,zhang20limi,kuan15limi。congzheikuaitiepishangjiandiaoyigebianzhang5limidezhengfangxingtiepianhou,shengxiatiepidezhouzhangshiduoshao?”xueshengjingguo3citiyilijiecaimingbai,“congzheikuaitiepijianxia”hanyoubuquedingxinxi——jianxiadeweizhikenengzaiyigejiaoshang,yekenengzaiyigebianshang,yekenengzaitiepizhongjian。

yb体育xueshengzhiyouduizheigebuquedingdexinxiyouleshendulijie,bingqiongjinzheigewentibeihoudesuoyoukeneng,cainengzhenzhengshenrulijiewentibenshen,houxudewentishendujiejuehefenleijianmocaiyoukeneng。yinci,congmouzhongyiyishangjiang,shuxuexuexideshendujiushiduiwentibenshenjixiangguanyaosudefaxianchengdu、lijiechengdu、pouxichengdu……

三、深度学习应该是全面、完整、丰富的学习

womenjingchanghuishuodeyigecijiao“quanmianshenru”,meiyourenshuo“shenruquanmian”。weishenme“quanmian”yaofangzai“shenru”qianmian?yinweizhiyourenduiyigeshiwuderenshiquanmianle、wanzhengle,cainengzhenzhengshixianshenru。pianmiandeshenruxuexibushizhenzhengdeshenduxuexi。

yb体育yixiangyuwentiweili,womenbingqileyizhishenme、qiushenmewentidedangelitishidexuexifangshi,ershizhijiejixueshengyigekaifang、jinkenengjianshaoyueshutiaojiandedaqingjing: “jiayiliangrenfenbieconga、bliangditongshichufa,xiangxiangerxing”,xianrangxueshengduixiangxiangerxingdegezhongqingxingjinxingcaixiang,xueshengtongguoshijitiyan、xuejumonidengfangshi,xianxiangquanle“mianduimian、beiduibei、tongxiangerxing”desanzhongyangtai,jiezhezhaoquanlemianduimianerxing4leimoxing,jizhenghaoxiangyu: sjia+syi=sab,meiyouxiangyu:sjia+syi+skong=sab;xiangyuguotou(meichujie): sjia+syi-szhong=sab,xiangyuguotou(chujie): sjia+syi-szhong-sjiachao-syichao=sab

zheiyangtamenjiuduixiangyuwentiyoulequanmian、wanzhenghexitonghua、jiegouhuadeshenkerenshi,bingweihouxujinyibuduixiangyuwentigegelitideshenduxuexidiandinglejichu。

四、深度学习应该是学习者实现深度思考、触及事物(学科)本质的学习

zaishenduxuexizhong,xuexizhenengguanlian、datongshiwusuoyouyaosu,nenggoushenrushiwudehexin,nengkanjianyanjiuduixiangbeihougenghexindebufen,lijieshiwudebenzhi(xuekebenzhi)。biruxuexisanshitudeshihou,womenzuzhixueshengzaianshilijinxingshijidetouyingcaozuo,jingguoqinshenshijianrenshidaosanshitudebenzhiqishijiushiwutidepingxingzhengtouying,shixianlecongjuxiangdaochouxiang、congbiaomiandaobenzhi,shendudongchasanshitudebenzhijiushiyanjiuguang、shiwu、yingzisanzhezhijiandeguanxi,eryanjiu“xing”yiji“xingyuxingzhijiandeguanxi”zhengshishuxuetuxingyujiheyanjiudehexin。xiangfan,meiyourangxuexizhelijiebenzhi、chujishiwuhexindexuexi,yidingbushizhenzhengdeshenduxuexi。

五、深度学习应该是学生全身心充分自主参与,深度、全面激活多层神经元的学习

zhishangdelaizhongjueqian,juezhicishiyaogongxing。juezhi(jishenduxuexi)bixujianlizaixuexizhedegongxingshang(zhenshishijianheshenqiedetiyan)。chuantongdeketangxuexidaduoshi“boziyishangdexuexi”,xueshenggengduoshikaoting、kan、xiangquxue,dongyongdeduoshitingjueheshijue。quanjingshishuxuejiaoyurenwei,shenduxuexiyinggaishirangxueshengquanmianganzhishijie,zuidahuadirangxueshengyongshenti“wujue”qinshen、quanmian、wanzhengganshouzhenggeshijiedejihui,rangxueshengyongquanbudeshenxintiyanxuexi,cushixueshenglengrerenzhixiangjiehe、zongheyingyongduozhongganguan,chongfenjihuogengduodeshenjingyuanlianjie,tongshizheizhongcanyuhexuexiyidingshizijue、zizhude,beidongxuexihennanshixianzhenzhengdeshenduxuexi。biru,“quanjingshishuxue”jiaoxuetuanduironghuoquanguodasaitedengjiangdejingdiankeli“shejianshangdefenshu”:

yb体育xueshengtongguochiyao、chibing、chitanghulu、hechengzhidenghuodongrenshifenshuhefenshudedaxiao。zaizheijiekeshang,xueshengbujinyongshijue、tingjue、xinjue,haiyongchujue、weijuedengquanfangweilijieleshugan,erqieshenkerenshilefenshu。

六、深度学习应该是学习者找到“自己”的学习,使人向更高阶、更高层次发展的学习

xuexizheduixuexiduixiangderenzhijinjieshunxuyibanshi“shishenme→zenmezuo→weishenme”,danbi“weishenme”genggaojiedeshixuexizheyaocanwudao“weishenme”beihoudeluojishishenme,jizheizhongsikaoshizenmesikaode。shenduxuexidexuexizhebujinyaocanwudao“weishenme”beihoudeluoji,erqiehainenggougenjuxuexizhezishendexuqiuheshijiqingkuangjinxingdiaozheng,xingcheng“ziji”dutederenzhiluoji,jizijidailaigaibianhechengzhang,congershixuexizhezaixuexizhongbuduanzhaodao“ziji”,bingshixianmouxiefangmiangenggaojie、genggaocengcidexuexifazhan。

birufanqiegongzuofa,tashiyizhongjiandanyixingdeshijianguanlifangfa(shishenme),caozuofangfashibarenwuqiegecheng25fenzhongyiduan,dingnaozhong,mei25fenzhongxiuxiyici(zenmezuo),yinweirenzhuanzhujizhongjinglideshijianshiyouxiande(weishenme)。neime,zheizhonggongzuofangfabeihoudexingweiluojidaodishishenme?daanshizhengtihebufendesixiang,yejihuazhengweiling,badaijiejuedezhengtichaifenchengyigegebufen,duiqifenbiejinxinggaikuo、guina、fenlei、jiejue,zuihoubajiejuedebufenlianjie、ronghechengfuzade、yijiejuedezhengti。chujidaoleluoji,shibushijiukeyitingzhile?dangranbuneng!womenzhishaohaixuyaozaishenyibu: zheiduanshijianyidingshi25fenzhongma?dangranbushi!xuexizheyaozhaodaoshihezijideshijian,anzijideganshouhejiezoulaiding(zhaodaowoziji),tongshixuexizhehaiyaosikaohechangshi,zheizhong“xingweiluoji、chushisixiang”chuleshihegongzuo,haishihezijirenshengdenaxiefangmian(gengduozhaodaowoziji,maijinlegenggaojie)。

zongshangsuoshu,“quanjingshishuxue”jiaoyurenwei,suowei“rendeshenduxuexi”shizhixuexizhetongguokexue、zizhu、quangancanyuderenzhihuodong,duimouxiewenti、xianxiang、shiwudengshixiangengweiquanmianwanzheng、jutishenru,lijiebenzhi、zhidihexin,shenzhichujixinlingdelijieherenshi,bingshizijiderenzhi、siwei、nengli、sixiangguanniandengxianggenggaojieduanhuogenggaocengcifazhan,jinerbuduanzhaodao“ziji”dexuexi。

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