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刹车装置中的科学知识——九年级物理上册《机械能》教学过程记录
发布时间: 2019-08-12 来源:yb体育_官网

教学背景

《jixieneng》shijiunianjiwulishangcedisanzhangdierjiedeneirong。zheijiekeneirongduo、nanduda,daduoshujiaoshizaishangwanyizhangdexinkeyihou,huianpai《jixieneng》dezhuantifuxi,yiqijiangsuoxuegainianjiegouhua、xitonghua。zhengjiekeweirao“chachezhuangzhi”jinxingyanjiu,bingshejilesangerenwu。congjingdianshiyanzhongde“chachezhuangzhi”daoqichede“chachezhuangzhi”,zaidao “chachezhuangzhi”desheji。tongguo“chachezhuangzhi”deqingjingxian,jinxingdongnengdaxiaodebiaoda、dongnengdezhuanhuadengzhishideshenduxuexi,shixueshengdesiweidadaoguanliantuozhanshuiping。

教学实录

shi: 10yue1ri,xiaomingquanjiayiqizuochedaowaidiyouwan,zaigaosugonglushangfaxianqichedechacheshiling,yijiarendunshixianrukonghuang。xiamianwomenyiqiguankanyixiadangshideshipin,zaiguankandeguochengzhongsikaozheiyanglianggewenti: shipinzhongshikongdeqichejuyoushenmeneng?wutiyou“neng”keyiduiwaizuogong,womenkeyitongguoshenmelaipanduanshikongqiche“neng”dedaxiao?

yb体育sheng: shipinzhongshikongdeqichejuyoudongneng。

sheng1: fashengchehuoshi,keyitongguoqichesunhuaichengdulaipanduandangshidongnengdedaxiao。

yb体育shi: shipinzhong,qichedeshenmezhuangzhishilingle?

sheng2: chachezhuangzhi。

yb体育shi: chachezhuangzhidezuoyongshishenme?

sheng2: shijiangqichededongnengjianxiao,jiangqichededongnengzhuanhuachengqitaxingshideneng。

shi: hao,jintianwomenjiuyiqilaiyanjiuyixiachachezhuangzhi。

dianxingrenwuyi: tongguoleibiqiche,ganshoushiyanzhongde“chachezhuangzhi”

yb体育shi: qingdajiakanyigejingdianshiyanshipin(jieturuxia),bingsikaoyixiajigewenti。

shi: gaishiyandeyanjiuduixiang、yanjiumudeshishenme?

yb体育sheng1: gaishiyandeyanjiuduixiangshixiaoqiu,yanjiuwutidedongnengyushenmeyinsuyouguan。

yb体育shi: xiaoqiudedongnengdaxiaoyushenmeyinsuyouguan?

sheng2: yuxiaoqiudesuduhezhiliangyouguan。

shi: zaishiyanguochengzhong,xiaoqiudedongnengshizaibianhuade,womenyanjiuxiaoqiunayidiandedongneng?

sheng3: zaipengzhuangdianbshidedongnengdaxiao。

yb体育shi: xiaoqiuzaibdiandedongnengconghezhuanhuaerlai?guanchazhuomianyiqi,sikaozhuanhuadongnengdeqitafangfa。

(xueshengfenxiaozujinxingjiaoliu)

yb体育sheng4: yongshoutui,shixiaoqiuzaibdianxingchengdongneng。

sheng5: yongdanhuangtui,shixiaoqiuzaibdianxingchengdongneng。

yb体育sheng6: yongdanbaitui,shixiaoqiuzaibdianxingchengdongneng。

yb体育shi: xiangfahenyouchuangyi,dajiakeyiyongzhuomiandeyiqichangshiyixia。

yb体育(xueshenggenjuzhuomianyiqikaishishiyan)

shi: butongdefangfadoushixiaoqiuzaibdianchuyoudongneng,nengfoushuoyixiayuxiemianchanshengxiaoqiudongnengdequbie?

yb体育sheng7: yongshoutuishixiaoqiuzaibdianxingchengdongneng,bunengzuodaomeicidouyiyang。

yb体育sheng8: yongdanhuangtuishixiaoqiuzaibdianxingchengdongneng,bunengzuodaomeicidounengpengzhuangxiaomukuai。

sheng9: yongdanbaituishixiaoqiuzaibdianxingchengdongneng,bunengzuodaomeicidounengpengzhuangxiaomukuai。

shi: zheixiebanfadouyonglenengliangdezhuanyihezhuanhua,danshizhunqueduhechenggonglvburukebenshangdeshiyangao。

shi: xiaoqiucongbdiandaocdian,sudujianxiaodao0,xiaoqiujianxiaodedongnengdaonaliqule?

sheng10: youyuxiaoqiudetuili,xiaomukuaikefumocalizuogong,xiaoqiudedongnengzuizhongzhuanyiqiezhuanhuaweixiaomukuaideneineng。

shi: ciguochengzhongkeyitongguoshenmefanyingxiaoqiuzaipengzhuangdianbdiandedongnengdaxiao?

sheng10: xiaomukuaideyidongjuli。

shi: henhao,zheishikexuetanjiuzhongdechangyongfangfa,womenchengweizhuanhuanfa。

shi: xiaoqiudongnengdedaxiaohainengzhuanhuachengnaxiekeyizhijieceliangdewuliliang?

sheng11: keyirangxiaoqiuquzhuangjimianfentuan、xiangpini,celiangaoxianshendu。

sheng12: keyirangxiaoqiuquzhuangjijimu,jiliangzhuangdaodejimushuliang。

sheng13: keyirangxiaoqiuzaishoujinshanggundong,celianggundongdejuli。

shi: shiyanzhongdexiaoqiuzaimukuaizuoyongxiatingxia,qichezaichachexitongzuoyongxiatingche,ruguojiangyundongdexiaoqiukanchengbenchideqiche,xiaomukuaixiangdangyuqichedechachezhuangzhi。xiaoqiumeiyoumukuaijiangwufakuaisutingxia,weilejishitingche,qicheyaoyouchachezhuangzhi。

yb体育(shejiyitu: tuchuzhuanhuanfa、leibifa、moxingfadeyingyong。leibifadezuoyongshi“youcijibi”,leibisiweideguochengjiushiyigetuiliguocheng。xueshengjianggaosuxingshideqichejiansuguochengzhuanhuaweixiaoqiudeyundongguocheng,liyongwulimoxingjianhuashijifuzaguocheng,tuchuzhuyaoyinsu,tixianlecongshenghuozouxiangwulidezhongyaosixiang)

yb体育dianxingrenwuer: tongguoyueducailiao,lejieqichezhongde“chachezhuangzhi”

shi: weilejishitingche,qicheyaoyouchachezhuangzhi,xiamianwomenguankanshipinbingsikaojigewenti。

yb体育(xueshengguankanqichechachezhuangzhidegongzuoyuanliheshipin,yueduyouguanqichechachezhuangzhidejieshao)

shi: feibendeqichejinjizhidongshi,dongnengzenyangbianhua?

yb体育sheng: qichededongnengjianxiao。

yb体育shi: dongnengzhuanhuachenglechachexitongshenmexingshidenengle?

sheng1: neineng。

shi: yincizaipanshangongluxiaposhi,youyujingchangchache,chachexitongneinengzengjia,chachepanwendushenggao,huiyingxiangchachedexiaoguo,yinfashigu。

yb体育shi: luntaiyudimianbudahuashi,qichedechachejuliyunaxiewuliliangyouguan?

yb体育sheng2: zengdachachejulideliang: qichedezongdongneng(m,v);jianxiaochachejulideliang: chachepanyuqiandemocali(f ), chachepandedaxiao。

yb体育shi: dahuoche、xiaoqicheweishenmebunengchaozai、chaosu?

sheng3: chaozai、chaosushiqichededongnengzengda,nengduiwaizuogengduogong。chacheshichachepankefumocalizuogong,xiangtongmocalixiadongnengdadechechachepanzhuandongdequanshuzengjia,qicheyaojingguogengzhangdejulicainengtingxia。

shi: weishenmezaitongyangdaolushang,butongdechexingxiansubuyiyang?

yb体育sheng4: butongdechexingzaitongyangdaolushangdongnengbutong,chachexitongyebutong。chachehou,qichebixuzaiyidingfanweineitingxia,zheijiuxuyaoyidingdexiansu,butongdechexingbutongdexiansu。

shi: f1saicheweishenmezuigaosuduzheimegao?

sheng5: yinweif1saicheyougenghaodechachexitong,shidediaosuxingshidesaicheyekeyizaiguidingjulineitingche。

(shejiyitu: weishenmebunengchaozai、chaosushiyigexitongwenti,xueshengyinggaizhandegenggaocainenghuidadegengzhunque。xueshengtongguoziliaolejieqichechachezhuangzhidegongzuoyuanli,lejiexiandaiqichegongyedechachexitongsheji,tuozhanzhishimian,jifaxuexixingqu)

dianxingrenwusan: tongguofenzutaolun,shejiqichezhongde“chachezhuangzhi”

shi: chachezhuangzhiduiyujiashizheeryanjiushishengmingdebaozhang,qingtongxuemenjieheshiyanheziliaosikaobingtaolunruheshejianquandechachezhuangzhi?

sheng1: jiadachachepanzhijing,keyitigaochachedexiaoguo。

yb体育sheng2: jiadapanyuqiandeyalihecucaochengdu,keyitigaochachedexiaoguo。

yb体育sheng3: yaoxuanzehaodeluntai,burongyidahua。

sheng4: chachepannaigaowen,zhangshijianxiapoqichedechachexiaoguobuhuishiling。

yb体育sheng5: yaozengjiayoumenhechachedewucaizhuangzhi,zengjiaqichedexiansuzhuangzhi。

shi: youdechezhubachelungaidayihao,kanqilaikeyigengweiwu,shifouheli?

yb体育sheng6: buheli,chachezhuangzhiruguobujiaqiang,huiyingxiangchachexiaoguo。

shi: youdechezhubaqichededongligaida,keyikaidegengkuaiyixie,shifouheli?

sheng6: yebuheli,chachezhuangzhiyuqichededonglishiyaopipeide,zhigaidonglihuizengjiachachejuli。

yb体育shi: wanyizaigaosugonglushangchacheshilingzenmeban?

yb体育sheng7: zaigaosugongludezhangxiapo、jiwan、shigupinfadiduanyouhuanchongdai,kaishangqujiukeyitingche。

yb体育shi: henhao,zheileihuanchongdaitongchangyousha、shi、nituyishierjian,zhuanyongyuzhidongshixiaocheliangdejiashiyuanzhudong“zhuang”shangzheixieshashiduiyidadaojiansudemude。

yb体育shi: zuoweichuzhongsheng,womenzenyanganquanchuxing?

sheng8: buchuanghongdeng,tixingqinrenbuchaosu、buchaozai,gaosugonglubutingche,chachepanzaifuwuquziranlengque。

yb体育(shejiyitu: xueshengtongguoxiaozutaolun,shejigailiangqichechachezhuangzhi,shendulejieqichegongyeshejidemeili,congwulizouxiangshenghuo。xueshengtaolunanquanchuxingdeyaodian,congyuanlishanglijieshenghuozhongruhebimianjiaotongshigufasheng,rangxueshengxueyizhiyong)

jiaoxuefansi

fuxikeyaoshangchuxinyi,congzhishizouxiangzhishideyingyong;yongzhishilaijiejuewenti、jieshixianxiang;congzhishizouxianghuodezhishi、yanjiuweizhidefangfa。zaifuxikeshangrangxueshengwenguerzhixin,yaozhuzhongwulizhishiyuxiandaikejidejiehe,yongshubenzhishilaijieshigongcheng、sheji、shebeizhongdeyuanli。

shangkekaishi,jiaoshiyi“xiaomingquanjiayiqikaichedaowaidiyouwan,zaigaosugonglushangfaxianqichedechacheshiling”zuoweikaipianyinru,yongxiangguanshipinyinqixueshengzhuyi。xueshengjinruzhuangtaihou,jiaoxuebubushenru,yi“chachezhuangzhi”weixiansuojinxingzhishiyufangfadeshenduxuexi。

zairenwuyizhong,hexinzhishishi“yanjiudongnengdaxiaoyushenmeyinsuyouguandeshiyan”,baokuoshiyanmude、yuanli、buzhou、jielun;hexinfangfashi: zhuanhuanfa、kongzhibianliangfa;siweishuipingdadaoduodianjiegoushuiping。renwuwanchenghoutichu: shiyanzhongdexiaoqiuzaimukuaizuoyongxiatingxia,qichezaichachexitongzuoyongxiatingche,ruguojiangyundongdexiaoqiukanchengbenchideqiche,xiaomukuaixiangdangyuqichedechachezhuangzhi。xiaoqiumeiyoumukuaijiangwufakuaisutingxia,weilejishitingche,qicheyaoyouchachezhuangzhi,yinchudiergerenwu。

zairenwuerzhong,xueshengtongguoyuedushixianzhunbeidecailiaolejiechachezhuangzhi,cailiaozhongdehexinzhishishi: chachezhuangzhishiyigejiangdongnengzhuanhuaweineinengdezhuangzhi,bingqieshitongguomocalizuogongdefangfa;hexinfangfashi: leibifa、moxingfa;siweishuipingdadaoguanlianjiegoushuiping。

yb体育zairenwusanzhong,tongguofenzutaolun,shejiqichezhongde“chachezhuangzhi”。yongzhishijiejueshijiwenti,xueshengfenzutaolunshejichachezhuangzhi,bingtaolunchacheshilingzenmeban?taolunanquanchuxingdeyaodiandeng。

benjiekeshejidezhishizhuxianzhonganzangfangfafuxian,qiangdiaolezhuanhuanfa,fuxilekongzhibianliangfa,yinchuleleibifa,yanshilemoxingfa。benjiekedeshejiyebijiaozhongshisiweidetisheng,yisolofenleifenxi,xueshengdesiweijiegoucongdandianjiegoudaoduodianjiegouzaidaoguanlian,zuihoudaochouxiangtuozhanjiegou,shuipingzhujiantigao,fuherenzhiguilv。

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